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徽州的傳統工藝香

 



取出備料

丁香、山奈、茴香、過山香、草寇等炮制窖藏好的香粉,楠木粘粉。

【養生線香主要用的粘粉是楠木粉,天然的粘粉材料。對香品的影響最小。劣質的線香用的都是化學粘合劑】

 



和料:

將炮制好的合香粉放入合香盤里,然后按一定比例將山泉水加入到合香粉中,用香勺緩緩的順時針攪拌,一直到沒有水時,然后用手反復揉搓,到不粘手為止,反復揉搓是這些藥之間相互作用,相互咬合的一個過程,這樣燒出來的香氣,氣味就特別好。



擠壓:將揉好的香泥放入擠香器里,緩緩擠出香條。

整理香條:將香條放在香籮上,用理香尺將香條理直,陰涼處干燥。



【制作盤香】:

將擠出的香條放在操作臺上 用手工卷盤香器卷成盤香。



【制作香牌】:



反復揉搓香泥 使香泥細膩,香藥更加融合,以防做成的香牌將來易開裂。



將揉透的香泥放在合香盤上用手掌壓平 ,尺寸比香牌稍大一點。



然后用香鏟沿著香牌的邊緣將多余的香泥去除。


脫模成形。

淺談徽州香事

 

徽州人的“香”,既有道佛兩教的宗教之香,祭拜神靈祖先的宗法之香,利益族人的祛穢防病的香新安醫學各類香丸、香藥熏療之香,更有感悟身心之文人香。

因避戰亂、四面環山的徽州就成了中原士族避亂福地,三次大規模遷徙 ,帶來了魏晉六朝的風雅和豐富多樣的藥香。南宋定都臨安帶來了新安江航運的興盛,為徽州帶來了內涵豐富的花果香、草木真天香及私房丸香。作為程朱理學故里的徽州以孝道為德行之本,尊祖敬宗,崇尚孝道,推動了祭祀用香的發展,201411月,“徽州祠祭”經國務院批準列入第四批國家級非物質文化遺產代表性項目名錄,在徽州民間,佛道進香文化的普及,也大大推動了香文化產業的發展,其中最具有代表性的就是“華云進香”。明清時期,徽州被譽為“御醫之鄉”新安醫學的發源地,豐富的醫學著作幾乎收錄了所有香藥和熏香及香灸的醫方,用來祛穢,防疫、安和神志、改善睡眠及治療各類疾病。

譯文

A brief discussion on huizhou incense

In Huizhou ,there are mainly four kinds of incense which are the incense of Taoism and Buddhism ,the incense of ancestor worship gods, the incense of literati in different shape such as pills 、powder、stick 、cone and incense coil . Huizhou, surrounded by mountains because of the war, became a place for the central plain people to escape from the chaos. Three large-scale migrations brought the elegance of the wei, jin and six dynasties and rich and diverse herbal incense . LinAn, the capital of the southern song dynasty, brought the prosperity of xinanjiang shipping industry, and brought the  incense of flowers and fruits, the true incense of plants and trees, and the different incense of homemade pills to huizhou.Hui zhou ,As neo-confucianism hometown ,the filial piety is the foundation of the virtue, advocating filial piety, promote the development of the incense of the sacrifice, in November 2014, "huizhou worship ceremony in ancestral house " approved by the state council on the fourth batch of national intangible cultural heritage list of representative projects, in huizhou folk, the spread of Buddhism and Taoism pilgrimages culture, also greatly promote the development of incense cultural industry, one of the most representative is "HuaYun pilgrimages. During the Ming and qing dynasties, huizhou was known as the birthplace of xin 'an medical school , the "hometown of imperial doctors". Rich medical works included almost all the incense and incense moxibustion prescriptions, which were used to disinfect、sterilize and purify air ,create the relax environment prevent epidemic disease, to make you sleep well and treat various diseases.

 

徽州的香文化目前能找到的最早的實物依據,就是19593月,安徽省考古工作者在皖南屯溪市西郊發現了兩座西周晚期墓葬,這兩座墓葬出土了一大批青銅器,大約有20余件,其中最為代表的就是鳳紋四方鼎和還有這個乳釘紋簋 ,青銅三足香爐。

In March 1959, archeologists in anhui province discovered two late western zhou tombs in the western suburb of tunxi city in southern anhui province. A large number of bronze vessels and incense burner , about 20 pieces, were unearthed in these two tombs, among which the most representative ones are the four square ding with phoenix pattern, the gui with nipple pattern, and the bronze three-legged incense burner. 

受南宋移都臨安(今杭州)影響,從都城杭州深入徽州腹地的新安江水運業開始興盛并連通京杭運河乃至錢塘江出海的重要水運交通樞紐。

新安江航線便成為徽州腹地人流、物流、信息流最便捷的進出大通道。屯溪古鎮漸漸成為皖、浙、贛三省邊陲的重要商埠。

南宋定都杭州,宋朝時期,軍事不行,文化造詣很高。定都杭州,給毗鄰杭州的徽州帶來了大力發展。大量的木材、竹子、漆器、筆墨紙硯、茶葉等徽州土特產品需求量上升,開始從徽州運往杭州(新安江)。同時徽商們不僅帶回了徽州腹地日需商品、糧食、布匹,還帶回了當時杭州的熏香的養生預防的生活方式。

Under the influence of the southern song dynasty's migration capital linan (now hangzhou), the water transport industry of xin 'an river from the capital of hangzhou and deep into the hinterland of huizhou, began to prosper and connected the beijing-hangzhou canal and even the important water transport hub of qiantang river to the sea. Xinanjiang route has become the most convenient access channel for people, logistics and information flow in the hinterland of huizhou. Tunxi town has gradually become an important commercial port in the border areas of anhui, zhejiang and jiangxi provinces。During the southern song dynasty, they were not good at military affairs and highly accomplished in culture . Make capital hangzhou, brought the huizhou  energetically to develop. A large number of wood, bamboo, lacquer ware, brush, ink, paper, inkstone, tea and other local products of huizhou began to transport from huizhou to hangzhou along the Xin 'An river. At the same time, huizhou merchants not only brought back daily necessities of huizhou ,such as grain and cloth, but also brought back the lifestyle of the use of incense for healthcare and prevention of disease  at that time.

 


   草木真天香

這一時期的杭州,《武林舊事》中記載,臨安的各大商業性酒樓中,會有各種小販、藝人滿足食客的消費需要,其中包括稱為“香婆”的老太婆,她們不賣小吃雜貨,更不賣藝,而是專門提供一項非常細化的“焚香服務”。因此,如果你是一名南宋時代的食客,只要帶上現錢就可以出門。到了酒樓里,你可以買到一切服務,包括買到一爐香!你招呼一聲,就有香婆為你捧上準備好的小香爐,爐里的香灰、香炭、香餅、香丸等等都已經由她收拾妥當。你在一縷香裊中盡情享受浮生一刻,然后付賬離開,其他都不用操心,就像桌上的碗碟會有店小二收拾一樣,那小香爐也自然會由香婆收走。

不難理解,這樣的焚香服務之所以應運而生,經濟實惠的草木香品供應一定是前提。香婆們所提供給客人的焚香之品,即使不是如“小四合”那樣的材料簡陋,也不會離之太遠。了解到宋人對于草木香品的著意開發,那個時代整個社會大肆焚香的風氣,才變得容易理解。

In hangzhou during south Song period, it is recorded in the history of Wulin that various commercial restaurants in LinAn would have various hawkers and entertainers to meet the consumption needs of diners, including the old women called "xiangpo", who did not sell snacks and groceries, let alone show off their skills, but specially provided a very detailed "incense burning service". Therefore, if you are a diner in the southern song dynasty, you can just take cash and go out. In the restaurant, you can buy all kinds of services, including a pot of incense! You say hello, there will be incense for you to hold the prepared small incense burner, incense ash, charcoal, incense cakes, incense pills and so on have been prepared by her. You would enjoy that moment, to please your heart in a wisp of sweet wave of the incense , and then pay a bill to leave , No need to worry about, just like the dish on the table waiter will collect , that small incense burner also can be taken away naturally by sweet old woman. It is not difficult to understand that the emergence of such incense burning services, economic and affordable supply of incense must be the premise.It is easy to understand the Song Dynasty has such good atmosphere of burning incense and people in song dynasty pay attention to the development of fragrant plants and trees

 

  文人香

北宋結束了晚唐五代亂世之後,采取崇文抑武的文人治國政策,文人備受尊重。龐大的文人群體是香文化發展的主導力量,他們愛香、弄香,對整個社會產生了廣泛的影響。所謂“巷陌飄香”。有史料顯示,南宋時期,香藥的進出口額竟占到政府財政總額的四分之一。

經常和宋朝文人打交道有商業買賣的徽州商人自然也會受到影響,回到家鄉,研究芳香性的藥材,配制各種香丸和香牌。

 

文人熱衷玩香

 

宋代的士大夫代表人物黃庭堅有一幀《制嬰香方帖》,現在珍藏于臺北“故宮博物館”。

這張便箋如今被視為書法藝術的杰作,當初卻是黃庭堅憑記憶為朋友錄寫的一個制香的配方。可見,那時,像他這樣的文人士大夫腦子里都儲著些經典制香方子,這大概是最好的一條證據,顯示宋代上層社會對于品香一事熱衷到了奮勇上陣、親力親為的地步。黃庭堅詩文:險心游萬刃  燥欲生五兵  隱幾香一柱  靈臺湛空明

宋代文化的特質可說是明凈素樸中蘊含著極度的高雅與精致。可惜的是,充分體現這一特質的文化成就中,只有詩詞、瓷器、繪畫等得以留存至今,

彼時高度發達的香事卻和當時的音樂、舞蹈一樣,只能通過文獻記載意會。即使如此,即使僅僅窺見那時文人筆墨里的殘影片闋,有宋一代在香事上的繁盛綺麗依然足以令后人驚異與羨慕

 

literati incense

 After the northern song dynasty ended the chaos of the late tang dynasty and the five dynasties, literati were respected for their policy of respecting literature and suppressing military power. A large group of literati is the leading force in the development of incense culture. They love and make incense, which has a wide impact on the whole society. So-called "alley with full of fragrance of incense ". Historical data show that during the southern song dynasty, the import and export of perfumery accounted for a quarter of the total government budget.

 Hui merchants, who often trade with those literati,were easily influenced 。when they came back hometown.also do research of local herbal,make different scented pills,scented pendant ect。

 

 Literati love to play incense 

huang tingjian, a representative scholar and doctor in the song dynasty, has a frame of "herbal incense recipe ", which is now collected in Taipei's "Palace Museum". Now the note, now considered a masterpiece of calligraphy, was originally a incense  recipe recorded by huang tingjian from memory for a friend. It can be seen that at that time, literati and scholar-officials like him had some classical incense recipe stored in their minds, which is probably the best evidence that the upper class of song dynasty was enthusiastic about incense tasting to the point of courageously  doing it by themselves. Huang tingjian's poem: The heart of the sinister swim ten thousand blade ,desire give birth to five soldiers。 Let’s burn incense to empty the mind and to clear our heart.

The characteristics of the song dynasty culture can be said to be pure and simple contains extreme elegance and refinement. Unfortunately, only poetry, porcelain, painting and other cultural achievements that fully embody this feature have survived to this day. At that time, the highly developed incense ceremony, like music and dance, could only be recorded through literature. Even so, even if only a glimpse of the literati brushwork ,the matter of incense prosperous in Song Dynasty is still enough to make future generations surprised.

 佛道用香  

徽州素有“上齊云、登仙境,朝九華、入佛國。的傳統習俗,無論是“上齊云”還是“朝九華”,民間都會自發地形成一些香會組織 譬如“齊云香會”“九華香會” 厚福香會 、種福善會。

Huizhou is known as the tradition customs of "climb qi yun mountain,just like climbing fairyland, climb Jiu Hua mountain , just like into the country of Buddhism 。whether it is "to climb qi Yun mountain or "to climb jiu hua",  Hui zhou  local people will spontaneously form some incense associations such as "qi yun xiang hui" and "jiu hua xiang hui", such as "hou fu xiang hui" and "Zhong fu shan hui".

 

新安養生香

徽州,御醫之鄉,新安醫學的發源地,擅長使用芳香性藥材。

 

1)疏通經絡開竅 利用芳香性藥材的穿透、走竄之性。

2)預防五臟過早衰老  協助各臟器推動氣血運行,營養五臟、分解消化、吸收儲藏。

3)有效清除體內寒濕等邪氣,疏泄、清熱、逐穢、三法隨機應用。

注意照顧脾胃和腎氣,但不一味強調進補,常施以芳香性藥材調理氣血,使氣機升降正常,血隨氣行,以通為補。這就是新安醫學的精髓之一,人體與自然一樣,尊重她們的規律,調動人體自身的免疫系統來修復身體和調養身體。

HuiZhou, The birthplace of the study of Xin 'an medicine, the hometown of  imperial doctor, was good at using aromatic herb

1) To utilize the penetration and channeling of aromatic herbs to dredge the channels and collaterals 

2) To assist the organs to promote the circulation of qi and blood, nourish the five viscera, decompose and digest, and absorb and store.To prevent premature aging of the internal organ,

3) effectively remove the body cold and damp and other evil qi, by catharsis, heat clearing,  removing body waste, of the three methods.

Pay attention to take care of spleen, stomach and kidney qi, but do not blindly emphasize tonic, often with aromatic herbs conditioning qi and blood, so that the blood can nourish the whole body.This is one of the essence of Xin 'an medicine. The human body, like nature, respects its rules and mobilizes its own immune system to repair and nourish the body.

 

汪機

汪機提出了以“調補氣血,固本培元”的治療思想,重視脾胃為氣血之源,主張促使氣血流暢,使經絡暢通,則濕熱自有出路,消除代謝產物。氣血若旺則正能勝邪,氣血一敗則邪反勝正,故以調養氣血,托補為先,扶正防邪。

 Wang Ji ,famous doctor in the study of XinAn medicine of Huizhou is proposed the treatment idea of "adjusting qi and blood, reinforcing the vital essence and strengthening the primordial qi". attaches great importance to the spleen and stomach as the source of qi and blood, qi and blood prompted fluent, smooth channels and collaterals, the heat and humid inside body has its own way, eliminate the metabolites. If the qi and blood are not able to overcome bad energy which can harm you , the qi and blood will be defeated, the bad energy will be victorious, so to raise qi and blood, to make up for the first, to protect against bad energy. 

孫一奎

“我們人體如同大自然一樣”,徽州名醫孫一奎 (太醫院御醫,孫一奎,明代休寧草市人(1522-1619),提出“生命運動在于氣”的主題、“天行健,君子以自強不息”)。

我們人的氣血如大自然一樣 晝夜流行不息,這樣就身體強健有力,不生疾病。一旦氣血不暢,經絡不通,就無法流行不息。我們身體就得不到營養,邪氣就容易侵入 ,免疫力下降,各臟器 皮膚容易老化,過早衰老。

Yi kui  Sun

Doctor of imperial hospital in the Ming dynasty (1522-1619) ,born in HuiZhou

Our human body is like nature, huizhou famous doctor Yi Kui Sun put forward the theme of "the movement of life is qi", Our blood, like nature's, is a constant day and night, so that the body is strong and powerful and does not have disease. Once the qi and blood can not go smoothly, the meridian get obstructed. Our body is not nourished, the bad energy is easy to invade, the immunity is reduced, the skin and each organ is easy to age, premature aging.

 

 

葉天士

新安名醫葉天士善用芳香性藥材調撥氣機,注意照顧脾胃和腎氣,但不一味強調進補,常施以調理氣血之劑,使氣機升降正常,血隨氣行,以通為補。新安醫學 強調經絡的通暢的重要性 ,不一味的吃補品

Tianshi  Ye

Tian shi Ye are very good at making use of aromatic medicinal herbs Take care of thethe spleen and stomach and kidney qi, but not always emphasize the supplement, often apply the medicine of regulating qi and blood, make energy inside body rise and fall normal, to make up. Study of XinAn medicine emphasizes the importance of the unobstructed flow of meridian, and does not blindly eat supplements.

 

 

中國的傳統工藝香

傳統古法制香,有一套嚴謹完整的體系,無論是香料的認識、藥材屬性的了解、香方的確認、香料的配伍及炮制方法,其過程極為繁復且慎重仔細。

 制香如制藥,以養神開慧為要

《本草綱目》紀載:“脾胃喜芳香,芳香可以養鼻是也。”脾胃屬土,中醫認為“土愛暖而喜芳香”,因此香氣可以入脾、開胃、透心、透骨、通絡、利竅、散邪、逐穢,既可養神養生,也可開竅開慧。

Chinese traditional herbal incense

Traditional method of herbal incense making contains a set of strict complete system and whether it is the understanding of the spices, herbs properties of understanding, incense making recipes confirm, compatibility of spices and processing methods, the process is extremely complicated and carefully.

 To make incense like a pharmaceutical, :《Compendium of Materia Medica 》say "the spleen and stomach like fragrant, so the aroma can easily go into the spleen and stomach meridian, according to Chinese traditional medicine theory,depends on what  herbal incense contain.aroma can go into different meridian ,such as hearts , kidney、lung、liver、urinary bladder meridian ect,  which not only can  restore energy keeping in good physical health, also can improve in mental health .

 

 

現代工藝的香

現代工藝香不用香藥,而是使用人工化學香精,所制的香也失去了養生養性等許多功效。

Chinese Incense of modern craft

To make modern incense  it doesn’t use herbal directly , but use artificial chemical essence, and so the fragrance of the system also loses many functions such as health maintenance.




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